Carpark Systems, Smoke Management and Ventilation
Enclosed or underground car parks normally require ventilation systems to assist fire fighting operations. These systems generally also prevent the build-up of carbon monoxide during normal day-to-day use of the car park.
The cooling is typically achieved through a refrigeration cycle, but sometimes evaporation or free cooling is used. Air conditioning systems can also be made based on desiccants (chemicals which remove moisture from the air) and subterraneous pipes that can distribute the heated refrigerant to the ground for cooling.
Insulated pipes (called also preinsulated pipes or bonded pipe) are widely used for district heating and hot water supply in Europe. They consist of a steel pipe, an insulating layer, and an outer casing.